by Reuters

Are we drought resistant enough?

African farmers must do more to beat climate change

Drought is one of the many climate related issues faced by African farmers
African farmers are finding new ways to cope with droughts, erosion and other ravages of climate change, but need to develop even more techniques to thrive in an increasingly uncertain environment, scientists of the World Agroforestry Centre (WOC) in Nairobi announced last week.

According to Reuters, smallholders have started to plant more drought-resistant and faster-growing crops to keep the harvests coming in, according to a survey of 700 households in Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Tanzania.

Patti Kristjanson, who heads a programme on climate change, agriculture and food security at WOC, said the good news is that a lot of farmers are making changes [to adapt to changing times], so it's not all doom and gloom ... but much more needs to be done,” she told Reuters.

Farmers, backed by researchers and international donors, needed to find better ways to store rain water, increase the use of manure and bring in hardier crops like sweet potatoes, according to Kristjanson.

According to findings in the journal Food Security, 55% of households surveyed in the past decade, said they had taken up faster-growing crop varieties, mainly of maize, and 56% had adopted at least one drought-tolerant variety,

Fighting erosion
According to Reuters, 50% of the households were planting trees on their farms – helping to combat erosion, increase water and soil quality and bring in new crops like nuts. “Half of the farmers had introduced inter-cropping – planting alternate rows of, for instance of beans and maize, in the same field and then swapping the rows next season. Beans fix nitrogen in the soil, helping reduce the need for fertilisers.”

But the recent study found just a quarter of farmers were using manure or compost – avoiding the use of more expensive fertilisers. And only 10% were storing water, it added. The study said that global warming, leading to erosion, less reliable rainfall and changes in the length of growing seasons, was adding to other stresses for farmers worldwide such as price spikes and a rising population.

Kristjanson said the study showed encouraging signs of many farmers' willingness to adapt. But faster change may be needed because Africa is especially vulnerable to climate change, according to the UN panel of climate scientists which blames heat-trapping emissions of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels.

In Africa, up to 220 million people could be exposed to greater stress on water supplies by 2020 and yields from rain-fed agriculture in some countries could be cut by up to 50% by 2020, according to a 2007 UN report.

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